More information on reference variations not shown here (e.g., in-press articles, articles with article numbers, articles without DOIs, books with titled volumes,
audiobooks) can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) and in the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.):
Use this flowchart to determine when to include DOIs, URLs, or database information for your reference citations. The notation “Ex: 1, 2...” refers to a few relevant examples in Chapter 7 of the 6th ed. of the APA Publication Manual (see also pp. 188–192).
If you have bibliographic data for an item and would like to find the DOI, please use the metadata section of this form.
If you only have an article title and author, please use the article title search section of this form.
If you have the text of a bibliographic reference, please use our automatic parsing service on this page.
If you are a developer and wish to submit a raw XML query use the XML form section of this page.
Create a formatted bibliography for your paper or cite references while you write. Locate citations Microsoft Word (requires plug-in) with the Cite While You Write™ technology (patent pending). Format papers in other word processors using RTF (rich text format) files. Create an independent bibliography list that can be saved, emailed or printed instantly
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social/sciences.
Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.
Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.
The more concise author-date style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author’s last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.
MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.
If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition). The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this handout for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA style.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.